• ISSN: 2301-3567 (Print), 2972-3981 (Online)
    • Abbreviated Title: J. Econ. Bus. Manag.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/JOEBM
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Eunjin Hwang
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Fiona Chu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing:  CNKI, Google Scholar, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, MESLibrary, etc.
    • E-mail: joebm.editor@gmail.com
JOEBM 2015 Vol.3(12): 1190-1193 ISSN: 2301-3567
DOI: 10.7763/JOEBM.2015.V3.357

Price to Income Ratio Approach in Housing Affordability

Norazmawati Md. Sani@Abd. Rahim

Abstract— There are many approaches to measure housing affordability. The approaches are Price to Income Ratio (PIR), Rent to Income Ratio (RIR), Housing Expenditure to Income Ratio, Market Basket Measure, Quality Based Measure and Residual Income Measure. Price to Income Ratio (PIR) is often used as indicators of measuring housing affordability. The objective of this research is to examine housing affordability in Pulau Pinang by using Price to Income Ratio (PIR) approach. The sample of this research comprises individuals who own a low-cost house at Pulau Pinang. The convenience sampling technique is used for this research with regression method as its analytical tool. The findings indicate that Price to Income Ratio (PIR) is a valid and easy approach to measure housing affordability in Pulau Pinang.

Index Terms— Housing affordability, price to income ratio,regression method.

Norazmawati Md. Sani @ Abd. Rahim is with the Universiti Sains, Malaysia (e-mail: norazmawati@usm.my).


Cite: Norazmawati Md. Sani@Abd. Rahim, " Price to Income Ratio Approach in Housing Affordability," Journal of Economics, Business and Management vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1190-1193, 2015.

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